While there are lots of various referencing formats and academic writing formats, Harvard citation style is still one of the most popular formats among modern students. It is easy to deal with Harvard citation style if you are familiar with its rules and overall format. Harvard style may seem to be the most interesting if you have to write something complicated and complex regarding a book or even a movie.
Reading this article, you will be able to find out what a few of our experts recommend on how to cite properly. With this formatting guide, you’ll learn how to cite the right way after checking a few useful Harvard citation style samples.
Harvard style: Distinctive features
Harvard citation style is the most common international citation style in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Most often, it is used in academic publications. Harvard style assumes that references to sources of information or individual ideas (data, materials) are presented in a publication twice: directly in the text of the publication as a footnote, when reference is made to ideas or information collected during the research in the journal; in the list of publications (References), located at the end of the author's work, which is ranked in order of using sources in the text of the article are fully disclosed.
References to sources in accordance with the Harvard style are given only in the Romanesque alphabet. Bibliographic descriptions of literary sources published in Cyrillic languages are not allowed to be translated into English. To correctly indicate such sources of literature, they are transliterated.
The following should be transliterated in the Harvard style:
- Initials and surnames of authors
- Titles of publications
- Names of periodicals, etc.
The place of publication and publishing house is indicated in accordance with the official analogs in the English language. Only in the absence of reliable information about the official names of the publishing houses and organizations in which this material is published, transliteration is allowed. The system for the transfer of geographic names, adopted by the United States Commission on Geographical Names (in 1944) and the United Kingdom Standing Committee on Geographical Names (in 1947), was chosen as the basic standard for transliteration.
This system today is essentially the standardization of the established practice of transferring Slavic names and titles, well understood by native speakers of English. The standard does not use diacritics or unusual letters. To automate the process of transliteration, the use of widely used online services is recommended.
Article quotations should be accompanied by a note indicating the author of the publication, but options are possible. In this case, a text of the form is obtained: ... students demonstrate a clear understanding of the terms of the information (Jones, 2001) or Jones (2001) found that students demonstrate a clear understanding of the term information. If there are several authors (less than 3), all the names are listed: ... later studies revealed a similar effect (Ross and Hudson, 2004) .... the results of the study revealed a permanent positive correlation between two variables (Roseniselanis, 1989). In case, when more than three authors specify only one last name: Smith et al. (2005) found that ... In addition, the organization or Internet resource may be indicated as an author.
Two types of Harvard citation style
To start your experience with Harvard citation style format and learn how to deal with this format, you need to divide it into two main types of Harvard citation style. Those Harvard citation types can be described as:
- Reference List Harvard style citation — this type of Harvard citation style is just a separate page you should create to list your references and their sources. It goes at the end of your entire paper. Be sure to list all extracts that you used in your article. Here is a scheme you should follow: Benton, B. (1987). Birth of the Nation. London: Brainwood.
- In-text citing — this type is more popular than the reference list. Students like it for its simplicity and usability. Every part of citing extract is in its place, and entire citing does not take tons of time to create it. You will have to create those samples in paper’s body paragraphs. You need to copy an entire phrase you want to use and mark it as a citation. There are various specifications for different sources. For a book source, Harvard citation style looks like this: “My life turned complete mess after I realized my home was burned to the ground last night…” (Benton, 1987).
Using this material, you are able to format your paper according to the rules of the Harvard citation style.
Example of citation Harvard style: Check how to cite
The best thing about the Harvard citation style is hiding right on the surface. It is about its diversity and flexibility. You can easily apply the Harvard style citation for any type of academic writing and source. If you are writing your work about some particular book or film, you can easily use citing an extract from the initial source using this particular format.
If you are familiar with other formats, you will appreciate the flexibility and easiness of this particular format on the very start ( Harvard citation style). The list of sources you can use for Harvard citation style is huge and almost the biggest of all others. Let us get a useful example of citation Harvard style.
Reference list to format citations properly
We tried to create few clear Harvard referencing style in-text citations samples for you to use as instructions and guides. You need to understand that there is a difference between books with one and two authors. Follow the guidelines below to write a bibliography the right way. Styles may differ depending on the number of authors.
- One Author (Harvard citation style)
Citation in Harvard style for books with one author is very easy to compose. All you need to include are just a few main things:
- Last name
- Main initial
- Journal publication date you are using
- Source name
- Edition info
- The city of release
- Name of the publisher
- Number of the page
Here is a default sample of how one can use it: Jackson, P. (1959). Paint Like Blood. Columbus: Domestic People.
- Two Authors (Harvard citation style)
Using citation style Harvard makes even referencing two authors book simply. All you need to learn is the correct template of writing and composing those citations. There is some exact pattern you need to follow to make it correct and you should use “and” to connect all the authors of the book together. The parts of this citing sample are the same as one author book rule. A student does not need to mark the initial edition of the book providing full information.
Here is how it works on practice: Corgan, B. and Century, M. (2011). Trapped Under Ice. Seatle, USA: Book Hook, p. 24.
In-text referencing: Avoid mess when formatting by following accurate guidelines
As we said before, in-text referencing seems to be easier to deal with. But there are a few more Harvard citation style rules you need to follow to meet all the requirements. Here are a few main things you should note:
- The last name of the author should be included if there are more than three other writers engaged in the Harvard citation style.
- Students often use a few sources by one author released in the same year. Then they should list them with alphabetical marks.
- If there are research publications of the same writer from different years, use chronological order to list them. It is a system that shouldn’t be changed in any way.
- The title in the Harvard citation style is the main feature if the name of the author is absent. Don’t include parenthetical in your title.
Create a paper following the Harvard citation system guide
The number of various formats in academic writing makes your education more flexible and diverse. Students are free to use different formats and learn to analyze different sources and Harvard format is one of the most useful and simple formats to deal with. Learning it once will help you for the entire educational period getting proper grades.
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